Glossary

酒用語集

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Kanji, hiragana or katakana
Japanese word
Standard / other expression
Simple definition
 
【A】↑TOP
秋上がりaki-agari(good) maturation in autumn-
アルコール度数alcohol dosualcohol content / alcohol percentage,
ABV (Alcohol by Volume)
-
甘辛amakarasweetness/dryness-
甘味amamisweetnessSweeetness is the taste of sugars present in the sake. Most sake has a noticeable level of sugar, providing softness and sweetness.
甘臭ama-shusweet aromaAroma like cooked koji
アミノ酸度aminosan-doamino acid contentFormol nitrogen expressed as volume (mL) of 0.1 mol/L NaOH
needed for 10 mL of sake. A scale for measuring the level of umimi (amino acids) in a sake.
荒走りarabashiriarabashiri, free run sake / first runFirst obtained sake when sake is pressed. The free run liquid that comes out of a filter.
あらいaraicoarse-
アル添arutenaddition alcoholThe addition of high-strength distilled alcohol.
あと味ato-ajiaftertaste, after-
熱燗atsukanwarmed sakeTerm used to describe sake heated to 50℃, 122℉. Literally means, "hot enough to warm body and soul".
 
【B】↑TOP
瓶火入れ
瓶燗
bin-hi-ire
bin-kan
bottle pasteurisation-
菩提酛bodai-motobodai motoA fermentation starter method that predates kimoto.
 
【C】↑TOP
カラメル様caramel-yocaramel-
長期熟成酒
古酒
chohki-jukusei-shu
koshu
(long) aged sake-
中央会chuokaiJSSThe Japan Sake and Shochu Makers Association, abbreviating its full name "Nihon Shuzo Kumiai Chuokai.
 
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大吟醸酒daiginjo-shudaiginjo (-shu)A category of premium sake made using rice with a polishing ratio of 50% or less and the addition of a small amount of high-strength distilled alcohol.
暖気dakia warmer, a hot-water kegA bucket-like tool, tipically made of metal that can be filled with warm or cold water and submerged into a fermentation starter to control the temperature.
出麹dekojibringing out of finished koji / taking out of finished koji(from a koji room)Sending out. The last stage in koji production.
出羽燦々dewa-sansandewa-sansanThe number 4 variety of sake-specific rice.
濁酒doburoku"unfiltered sake", similar to a thick nigoriBut doburoku is not legally a kind of sake because it has not been passed through a filter.
 
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越後echigocorresponding closely to Niigata PrefectureIt gives its name to a famous toji guild.
 
【F】↑TOP
含み香fukumikaretronasal aroma,
aroma in mouth
-
袋吊り酒fukurozuri-shusake made through cloth bag gravity drip process / sake dripped from hanged bags by gravity-

フネ
funefune, a traditional press (for sake)The container that holds the cloth bags that are pressed during funa-shibori.
普通酒futsu-shunon-premium sake, ordinary sake / regular sake, standard sake, table sake, mass-market sake, commercial sake-
腐造fuzospoilage of fermentation mash-
 
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限定吸水gentei-kyusuilimited water absorption-
原料米genryo-mairice (for sake making)-
原酒genshugenshu, undiluted sake-
吟醸ginjoginjoA category of premium sake made from rice with a polishing ratio of 60% or less and the addition of a small amount of high-strength distilled alcohol.
吟醸香ginjo-kafruity aroma, fruity flavor, ginjo-aroma / Ginjo-ka(fruit, flower,
floral, blossom)
-
吟醸麹ginjo-kojikoji for ginjo making-
吟醸酒ginjo-shuginjo (-shu)Sake made from highly polished rice using special technique.
吟醸酒粕
吟醸粕
ginjo-shu-kasu
ginjo-kasu
ginjo sake cake-
吟醸造りginjo-zukurimethod for making ginjo sake , ginjo making-
A traditional sake measurement equivalent to 180ml or 6 US fl. oz.
One go refers to 180 ml (milliliters).
ぐい呑guinomiguinomiTraditional sake cup (larger than an o-choko).
ゴム臭gum-shurubber smell, rubbery-
 
【H】↑TOP
hakoboxMedium sized trays used in the second half of koji making.
箱麹hako-kojibox kojiKoji that was transferred to hako part way through production.
白米hakumaiwhite rice / polished rice, milled rice-
花様hana-yofloral, blossom-
発泡清酒
発泡酒
happo-seishu
happo-shu
sparkling sake-
初添
添仕込
hatsu-zoe
soe-jikomi
soe
soe, first additionFirst addition, when building the moromi using the "three stage addition" method.
並行複発酵heiko-fukuhakkomultiple parallel fermentationProcess wherein saccharification and fermentation occur
simultaneously.
火入れhi-irepasteurization,
heat sterilization
-
引き込みhikikomibringing steamed rice into koji -
making room
The first stage in koji production.
老香hine-kahine-ka, off flavor of aged sake, oxidized or stale odorIt is smilar smell to rotten cabbage, gas, or takuan, a Japanese pickele, and different from matured aroma.
The aroma of an out-of-condition sake.
hinokihinoki cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusaJapanese cypress or hinoki cypress, traditionally used for koji rooms.
火落ちhi-ochibacterial contamination,
spoilage (of sake)
A sake fault that occurs when hi-ochi bacteria spoil unpasteurised sake.
火落ち菌hi-ochi kinhiochi bacteriaA strain of lactic acid bacteria that can spoil unpasteurised sake.
ひやおろしhiyaoroshihiyaoroshiHiyaoroshi is sake made in winter, matured during summer, and bottled in autumn.
本醸造酒honjozo-shuhonjozo (-shu)A category of premium sake made using rice with a polishing ratio of 70% or less and the addition of a small amount of high-strength distilled alcohol.
 
【I】↑TOP
一般米ippammaitable rice, eating rice / rice to eat, cooking rice, ordinary riceFor sake making, both cultivars of sake brewing rice and eating rice are used. Both cultivars are non-glutinous japonica rice.
一升瓶isshobin1.8 L bottleOne sho is 1.8 L or 3.8 US pints.
居酒屋izakayajapanese sake bar-
 
【J】↑TOP
蛇燗jakanjakanA bulk method of pasteurising sake.
上槽
搾り
joso
shibori
pressing / filtration (of fermentation mash)Pressing is a process to separate sake cake and sake.
醸造アルコールjozo alcoholalcohol, brewers alcohol / neutral alcohol, pure alcoholAlcohol produced by distilling a wash that is made by fermenting products of agricultural origin. This is used in non-junmai sakes.
蛇の目猪口janome-chokoa (sake) tasting cup with concentric blue circles on bottomIt helps to see color and clarity of sake.
熟成
熟成酒
jukusei
jukusei-shu
aging, maturation
aged sake
-
熟成香jukusei-komatured aroma (of long-aged sake)-
純アルコール収得量jun alcohol shutokuryovolume of produced alcohol (L)
from 1,000 kg of rice
純米junmaijunmai, pure riceA category of premium sake made without the use of high-strength distilled alcohol. There are no polishing ratio requirements for rice used to make junmai.
純米大吟醸junmai daiginjojunmai daiginjoA category of premium sake made using rice with a polishing ratio of 50% or less and without the use of high-strength distilled alcohol.
純米吟醸junmai ginjojunmai ginjoA category of premium sake made using rice with a polishing ratio of 60% or less and without the use of high-strength distilled alcohol.
純米酒jummai-shujummai (-shu), pure-rice sakeA sake made only from rice and rice koji (without addition of
brewers alcohol)
樹脂臭jushi-shuplastic smell, resin-
 
【K】↑TOP
カビ臭kabi-shumoldy smell, mould smell, TCA, mushroomy-
鏡開き
鏡割り
kagami-biraki
kagami- wari
kagamibiraki, ceremonial opening of sake caskKagami-biraki is a ceremony to crack open a wooden (cedar) sake cask with wooden hammers (at the beginning of a party to toast with this sake).
櫂入れkaiiremixing (stirring) of fermentation mash
果実様kajitsu-yofruity, fruity note
掛米kake-maikake (rice),
sake rice except for koji making
Steamed rice that is directly transferred to a fermentation vessel and not used to make koji.
神棚kami-danasmall shrineThere are sake gods of sake-making in Japan, therefore this is a small shrine in each sake breweries.
紙臭
ほこり臭
土臭
kami-shu
hokori-shu
tsuchi-shu
papery/dusty/earthy smell
燗上がりkan-agarienhancement of flavor by warming,
improved taste by warming
燗どうこkan-doukokan-doukoA special type of waterbath used to heat sake carafes.
燗酒kan-zakewarmed sake
寒造りkan-zukurisake making in winter, sake making in the coldest season
(麹の)枯らしkarashicooling of koji,
cooling and drying of koji
(酒母の)枯らしkarashistorage of a starter culture, conditioning of a starter cultureperiod between completion of a starter culture and use of it
(白米の)枯らし期間karashi-kikancooling period,
conditioning period (after rice polishing)
Since rice grains are dried during polishing, the polished rice gains moisture to the equilibrium during this period.
活性清酒kassei-seishusparkling cloudy sake
粕歩合kasu-buaipercentage of sake cake to total rice weight
粕臭kasu-shusake cake smell
木香kigacedar like aroma, aroma of cut wood, woody
貴醸酒kijoshukijo-shu, aged and sweet specialty sakeKijo-shu is a special kind of sake with sweet and rich taste and often well aged.
きき猪口kiki-chokokikichoko, a (sake) tasting cup
きめkimetexture, flavor weave
きめの細かいkime-no-komakaisilky, fine, creamy
生もとkimotokimoto starter culture, kimoto / kimoto seed mashA traditional starter culture (with (natural) lactic acid fermentation). The process of kimoto making has a step of motosuri, grinding of rice and koji.
生もと系酒母kimotokei-shubokimoto -style starter culture,
kimoto and yamahai
A raditional starter cultures (with (natural) lactic acid fermentation).
木の実様kinomi-yonutty
金属味kinzoku-mimetallic taste
切り返しkirikaeshikirikaeshi,
re-breaking up (of koji)
After 10-12 hr of the inoculation of koji spores, the pile of koji is spread and piled up again to keep the even temperature. This step is often taken place just before transferring koji into shallow trays.
酵母様kobo-yoyeasty / doughy, bread dough
焦臭koge-shuburnt
kojikojiKoji is culture of a special species of mold on rice, barley etc. which is used to make sake, shochu etc.
麹歩合koji-buaipercentage of koji rice to total rice weight
麹菌koji-kinkoji moldAspergillus oryzae
麹米koji-mai(white) rice for making koji, (white) rice to make koji, koji rice
麹室koji-murokoji -making room, koji room
穀類様kokurui-yograiny / cereal, wheaty, rice
米麹kome-koji(rice) kojiA kind of mold grown on rice. It is often called simply as koji in sake making.
koshikia traditional steamer,
a steaming vat
香辛料様koshinryo-yospicy
口中感kouchu-kantexture, mouthfeel
汲み掛けkumikakekumikake, recirculation of liquid in a starter culture, pouring (of starter liquid) / pumping over (for sake making)Taking out and pouring of starter culture liquid during early stage of starter making to enhance the absorption of liquid by koji and steamed rice. Liquid in starter culture is full of released enzyme from Koji .
Pouring this liquid to the rice enhances saccharification.
汲水歩合kumimizu-buaipercentage of water to total rice weight
蔵人kurabitoa sake brewery worker
蔵元kuramotoa sake brewery
草様・青臭kusa-yo, ao-shugrassy, green / herbaceous
きょうかい酵母Kyokai-koboKyokai yeast, association yeast / BSJ (Brewing Society of Japan) yeastSake yeast distributed by Brewing Society of Japan
 
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まるいmaruimellow, rounded / well-rounded, round
masuwooden (box-shaped) sake cup
moritransfer of koji into shallow trays, moundingAfter first day, koji is transferred into shallow trays for the second day of the process.
もろみmoromifermentation mash, ferment,
main fermentation / main fermentation mash, (sake) mash, main mash
Fermentation mash contains rice and koji .
もろみ搾り機
圧搾機
moromi shibori-ki
assaku-ki
a filter press (for sake)It is sometimes referred as
Yabuta , a brand name.
酛摺りmoto-surimotosuri / grinding process (of
starter culture)
Grinding of rice and koji in starter culture.
蒸米mushimaisteamed rice-
無ろ過(酒)muroka(-shu)unfiltered sake,
un-charcoal filtered sake
-
(米を)蒸すmususteamRice is steamed so that the rice starch will be easily decomposed by koji enzymes.
 
【N】↑TOP
仲仕事naka-shigotointermediate mixing (of koji), middle-workThese operations are carried out to control the temperature, moisture and growth of koji. (=shimai-shigoto)
仲添
仲仕込
naka-zoe
naka-jikomi
naka
naka , second addition (day 3), middle addition
生貯蔵(酒)nama-chozo(-shu)namachozo(-shu)A sake that has been stored without pasteurization but is pasteurized at the time of shipment. (Pasteurized only once at bottling.)
生老香namahine-kanama hine-ka, off flavor of unpasteurized sakeThe aromas of an out-of-condition nama-zake.
生熟nama-jukunama-jukuAn unpasteurised sake that has been deliberately matured.
生酒nama-shu,
nama-zake
nama-zake, unpasteurized sake / sake without heat sterilizationIt gives the taste of new sake which has been just squeezed.
生詰(酒)namazume(-shu)namazume(-shu )A sake that has been pasteurised once before bulk storage.
なめらかnamerakasmooth / velvety, silky
南部nanbunanbu clanA samurai clan that once ruled part of what is now Iwate Prefecture, and gives its name to a famous toji guild.
苦味nigamibitternessBitterness is rarely found in sake and is generally undesirable.
にごり酒nigori-zakenigorizake, cloudy sakeA sake that has been roughly filtered and therefore remains cloudy.
日本酒度nihonshu-donihonshu-do,
sake meter value (SMV)
An indicator of sweetness of sake.
It is a specific gravity converted into sake meter scale which indicates sweet or dry. + means dry and - means sweet.
A measurement of the density of sake compared with water.
日光臭nikko-shulight-struck smell-
濃醇nojunrich and full taste,
full body
-
農協nōkyōJapan Agriculture, JAA national network of local farming co-operatives.
濃淡notanrich/light, heavy/light,
full/light
-
nukarice bran, rice bran powderThe rice dust generated by rice polishing.
塗り破精nuri-hazeuneven mould growthUneven mould growth in koji making.
温燗、ぬる燗nuru-kanwarm sakeTerm used to describe sake heated to 40℃, 104°F. Literally means, 'the warmth of a relaxing hot spring bath'.
 
【O】↑TOP
おちょこ、お猪口
ちょこ
o-choko
choko
traditional sake cup-
踊、踊りodoriodori, the next day after soe, day 2 -resting day after 1st addition / rest period, resting stageThe second day of the four taken to build a main fermentation during which nothing is added to enhance the growth of yeast.
澱引きoribikiremoval of sediment,
decantation, racking
-
澱下げorisagefining (clarification) of pressed sake-
 
【R】↑TOP
濾過、ろ過rokacharcoal finingCharcoal fining used to remove color from filtered sake.
硫化物様ryukabutsu-shusulfur smell / eggy smell-
 
【S】↑TOP
酒林
杉玉
sakabayashi
sugidama
sakabayashi, sugidama , a cedar ballA sphere-shaped ornament
made with cedar leaves.
酒袋sakabukurocloth bags used at pressing stage-
酒蔵sakagurasake brewery-
酒粕sake-kasusake kasu, (pressed) sake cakeThe solid cake of rice particles left over after filtration.
酒造り唄sake-zukuri-utasake making songs, sake-brewing folksong / sake brewers work song-
三段仕込sandan-shikomi
sandan-jikomi
three-step preparation of fermentation mash / three-stage mashing process,
mashing in three stages
To prepare the fermentation mash of sake, koji, steamed rice and water are divided into three portions and added over four days. This method is effective to prevent microbial contamination.
酸度san-doacidity, titratable acidity / total acidA scale for measuring the level of amino acid in a sake.
Tartaric acid (g/100 mL) =0.075 x acidity (mL)
酸味sanmiacid, sourness, acidityAcidity gives sake its freshness. The main acids present in sake are lactic, succininc glutamic and malic.
酸臭san-shuacetic smell, vinaigrette / volatile acids (VA)-
ささ濁りsasa-nigorisasa-nigoriA nigori with a small amount of sake lees remaining.
製麹するseikiku-surumake koji / propagate koji mold-
精米seimairice polishing, rice millingRice polishing is a process that scrapes off the outer layer of brown rice to reduce the contents of lipid, protein, etc.
精米歩合seimai-buairice-polishing rate, rice-polishing ratio / percentage of rice polishing,
degree of rice polishing
Rice-polishing rate is the weight percentage of white rice to
brown rice.
清酒
(=日本酒)
seishu
(=nihonshu)
sake / sakéOne of the two official names for sake in Japanese.
清酒醸造
酒造り
seishu-jozo
sake-zukuri
sake brewing, sake making-
清酒酵母seishu-kobo(sake) yeast-
責めsemesemeThe final filtration fraction.
洗米semmaiwashing rice-
しぼりたてshiboritatefreshly pressed sake,
fresh sake
A just squeezed sake.
脂肪酸臭shibosan-shufatty acid smell
渋味shibumiastringencyA Japanese word for astringency (textural dryness). This can be a pleasant grippiness when it occurs at a low level.
新酒shinshunew sake, sake nouveauAn unpasteurised sake that is released in the early summer.
仕込水shikomi-suiwater (for sake making)
仕舞仕事shimai-shigotofinal mixing (of koji),
final-work
The sixth stage in koji production.
These operations are carried out to control the temperature, moisture and growth of koji. (=naka-shigoto)
心白shimpakushimpaku, white core, opaque white center (of rice) / pearl of riceA well-defined starch core at the centre of grains of sake-specific rice which makes easy for koji to grow into it. It is visually appeared white.
浸漬するshinseki-surusoak, steep
塩味shioaji, emmisaltiness-
雫酒shizuku-zakedrop sakeSake made using the drip method of filtration.
shotraditional sake measurementIt can be equivalent to 1.8L or 3.8US pints.
焼酎shōchū, shochutraditional Japanese distilled spiritIt can be made from from barley, sweet potatoes, rice, buckwheat and other ingredients.
酒母
shubo
moto
starter culture, fermentation starter / seed mash, yeast starter, starterThe fermentation starter.
独立行政法人 酒類総合研究所shurui-sougou-kenkyujoNRIBNational Research Institute of Brewing
酒造shuzosake brewery, brewery-
酒造技能者shuzo-ginoshaa skilled sake brewer, a skilled sake artisan / a sake craftsperson-
酒造好適米/
酒米
shuzo-kotekimai /
sakamai
sake-specific rice,
sake-brewing rice/
sake rice, sake-making rice
Sake-brewing rice means rice cultivars suitable for sake making.
速醸(酒母)
速醸酛
sokujo(-shubo)
sokujo-moto
sokujo starter culture, sokujo / sokujo seed mashA modern method to make sake starter (with addition of food
grade lactic acid)
 
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種切りするtanekiri-suruinoculate koji spores
種麹tane-kojispores of koji mold, koji spores
淡麗tanreilight and delicate taste, light body / elegant, dry, subtle, fine, very clean
炭酸ガスtansan gasCO2, gassy(natural/artificial) carbonation
炭素濾過tanso-rokacharcoal filtration
樽酒taruzaketaruzake, cask sakeCask sake has a specific flavor of cedar and is not aimed at
maturing.
杜氏tojitoji, a chief sake maker / a brew master, a master sake brewer
糖化酵素toka-kosodiastatic enzyme, amylasesEnzymes for saccharification, enzyme to digest starch into sugar.
徳利tokkuritokkuri, a small serving flask, a small (porcelain) carafe
床もみtokomomimixing (of koji rice)After inoculation of koji spores, koji rice is kneaded and mixed well to put koji spores evenly onto rice.
(清酒の)特殊製品tokushu-seihinspecialty sake
特定名称酒tokutei-meisho-shuspecially designated sake, premium sake
留添
留仕込
tome-zoe
tome-jikomi
tome
tome, third addition (day 4), final addition
積み替えtsumikaerestacking of koji traysTo control koji temperatures.
 
【U】↑TOP
うま味umamiumami, savory tasteUmami is a primary sensation triggered by the presence of some amino acids.
上立香uwadachikaorthonasal aroma,
aroma in glass
 
【W】↑TOP
分けwakecooling down of a starter culture
沸き付きwakitsukicommencement of fermentation (of a starter culture)
沸き付き休みwakitsuki-yasumiresting period of starter culture, cease warming (since spontaneous fermentation is achieved) / break time of warmingContinuous fermenting period of a starter culture.
割水warimizuwater added to sake before bottling (to adjust alcohol content)Undiluted sake contains up to 20% of alcohol and is usually diluted to 14-16 alcohol before bottling. These alcohol contents are easy to drink.
 
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山廃(酒母)
山廃酛
yamahai(-shubo)
yamahai-moto
yamahai starter culture, yamahai / yamahai seed mashA traditional sake starter (made without grinding process).
和らぎ水yawaragi-mizuwater (served with sake)
 
【Z】↑TOP
ざらつくzaratsukuharsh / granular
雑味zatsumiunpleasant roughnessA Japanese term for an unpleasant roughness and lack of harmony.
全国新酒鑑評会zenkoku-shinshu-
kampyokai
Annual Japan Sake Awards
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